This inscription was discovered at Zincirli by the Neubauer Expedition in July 2008 and is dated to ca. 735 BCE. It was published by Dennis Pardee in the Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 356 (2009): 51–71.

The translation presented above is a slightly revised version by Pardee that will appear in The Context of Scripture, vol. 4. The vocalization of KTMW’s name is uncertain but “Katumuwa” has been proposed by K. L. Younger (2011) as the most likely reading, based on Luwian parallels. The archaeological context of the inscription and the iconography of the stele on which the inscription was engraved indicate that the Panamuwa whom Katumuwa served was Panamuwa II, who reigned in Sam’al from ca. 740 until his death in battle at Damascus in 733/32 BCE, rather than the earlier king Panamuwa I. This inscription was written in a local Sam’alian dialect that shows Aramaic influence.

Inscription of Katumuwa, servant of Panamuwa II of Sam’al

I am KTMW, servant of Panamuwa, who commissioned for myself (this) stele while still living. I placed it in an eternal chamber and established a feast (at) this chamber: a bull for Hadad Qarpatalli, a ram for NGD/R ṢWD/RN, a ram for Šamš, a ram for Hadad of the Vineyards, a ram for Kubaba, and a ram for my “soul” (NBŠ) that (will be) in this stele. Henceforth, whoever of my sons or of the sons of anybody (else) should come into possession of this chamber, let him take from the best (produce) of this vine(yard) (as) a (presentation)-offering year by year. He is also to perform the slaughter (prescribed above) in (proximity to) my “soul” and is to apportion for me a leg-cut.